He noted that the majority of marriages were monogamous and Kurdish did not veil and they participated in social activities such as work, dancing and singing together with men. A young Kurdish woman named Fatma became chief of the Ezdinan tribe in and she was known among her tribe as the queen. In , the Kurdish writer Mahmud Bayazidi mentioned the life of Kurdish women in tribal, nomadic and rural communities. In September , when Hamad visited, residents had just started to return. In other provinces of the area it looked barely better. In the late 19th century, Lady Halima Khanim of Hakkari was the ruler of Bash Kala until she was forced to surrender to the Ottoman government after the suppression of the Bedir Khan revolt in Hamad says that although men and women separate into different camps overnight, they often train together and fight shoulder to shoulder. This regime of polygyny was, however, practiced by a minority, which included primarily the members of the ruling landowning class, the nobility, and the religious establishment.